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     A.   Prevention/Control of Trafficking/Prostitution/Crime through Area   

             Development Programme

             The states, locations, coverage etc. of the progrmme are given below.

State District  No. of villages Covered     No. of Beneficiaries-Direct/Indirect
Rajasthan Roopwas, Bharatpur 40 villages 3300 families. 18260 Population
Uttar Pradesh Nautanwa, Maharajganj 89 hamlets in 23 villages 7500 families.  50000 population 
Uttarakhand Naugaon, Uttarkashi 20 villages 1000 families. 5690 population

Kendra’s work on women in prostitution started in 1981, with conducting a study on ‘Prostitutes and Prostitution’ merely as an issue of research interest. Studies on prostitution then were difficult to conduct even by way of getting researchers for data collection because of the stigma attached to the issue. Initiation of action connected with experiment in prevention/control of problem of prostitution was started from 1986-87 in the form of creation of awareness among people about the issue by organizing seminars / conferences and later by organizing area development programme  in areas identified as places of origin of the girls / women in prostitution. This was neither an ad hoc affair, nor a result of mere availability of resources. It was a planned action based on the conviction that something should be done to mitigate or arrest  the problem.

Factors prompting GNK to plan and organize action included Sense of Guilt of the  reseasrchers (K. K. Mukherjee and Sutapa Mukheerjee)  who felt that,  while they have gained personally and organizationally based on the  studies and nothing specific had been done by them to improve the condition of the girls/women in the profession;  plea  from the Victims;  suggestions from well wishers;  enthusiasm of the workers for initiation of the action and willingness to take challenges related to the action.

After the decision of implementing ideas into action there were detailed and intensive discussions for days, about the nature of proposed action.  GNK opted for the preventive model because: it tries to deal with the problem at the root by attacking the factors contributing to it; it is stigma free and it is cost effective.

The specific objectives of the programme are : improving literacy and educational standard of the people with special emphasis on girls and women; creating awareness on different dimensions of the issue;  promoting livelihood opportunities; mainstreaming the communities; 

The action was first started at Roopwas, District Bharatpur, Rajasthan in the year1993-94 , covering Ghatauli and other villages inhabited  largely by the Bedia, Nut and Kanjar communities who are traditionally engaged in prostitution.

Following the initiation of action at Roopwas (Bharatpur), it was felt that similar action could be taken up at two other places having similar problems  namely: Nautanwa, District: Maharajganj, Uttar Pradesh and Naugaon, District: Uttarkashi, Uttar Pradesh, presently Uttarakhand because of their frequent references in various studies. Consequently the action were started respectively in the year 1997-98 and 1996-97.  These areas together cover 99 villages spreadover 10 blocks in three states (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand), 12910 families and 85,019 population, about 2000 families are directly / indirectly involved in prostitution.

Prostitution / trafficking  is a common phenomenon in all the areas, practice of prostitution differs in terms of socio-cultural origin and acceptance. Roopwas (Bharatpur) area has caste based prostitution, practiced over centuries in communities namely, Bedias, Nuts and Kanjars, resulting in respective community’s acceptance:

Nautanwa is on the international (Indo-Nepal) Border, a known trafficking route. Trafficking of girls / women for prostitution in this area takes place in the name of marriage, job and better opportunities.  The red light area, earlier located at Sanauli, has shifted to Nepal side.  There is huge concentration of trucks and buses in the area because of its location.  This has created demand for girls/women in prostitution.  Smuggling has emerged as an important illegal economic activity involving different sections of population including women and children.  Infact, smuggling has systematically created problems for social development activities and resulted in exploitations of children and women, sexual and other wise.

Prostitution at Naugaon area has cultural basis as it emanates  from the practice of polyandry system, which has been evolved to prevent fragmentation of land.  Consequently, people of the area are reluctant to talk openly about the existence of the problem

The essential features of the actions are :

  • It is an action research programme
  •  It was carried with time gaps at different levels, i.e. in studying the issue, in deciding to initiate action and in actual             implementation of programme,
  •  Frequent visits to the areas and discussions with, wide range of persons within and outside the areas prior to actual initiation of action for deeper understanding of the problem and developing contact and relationship with people. 
  •   Action started prior to receiving any support and with its progress and expansion resource mobilization was perceived as a constant need in translating ideas into action .
  •  It is an action  for area development, at places identified as areas of origin of girls and women in prostitution to deal with factor contributing to induction in prostitution.
  • The target group covers all the sections of  population, with the focus on women and children belonging to vulnerable groups.
  •  The action emphasizes on securing involvement and participation of people by adopting family centric community based approach.
  •  It started with action connected with programmes on health and education, prior to organizing livelihood and other programmes, as it serves the purposes of better understanding of the needs, problems of the area and people as well as developing functional relationship with them.
  •  It is an action carried on in close collaboration and linkages with local government departments and agencies, which were developed prior to initiating the action.
  • It is an action requiring committed and trained workers willing to work for some years in a difficult situation. Consequently, search for suitable workers becomes a constant need.

Programmes have been developed in the form of a process over the period of time taking into consideration the needs and requirements of areas / people, objectives of the project and principles of area development programme, which requires planning of action and giving emphasis on all aspects of development viz. social and development.

The programmes started, apart from conducting socio-economic studies, with education and health activities to establish relationship with people and gain their confidence. There was, later, diversification in and expansion of programmes along with the progress of initial activities and availability of resources.

Programmes presently cover a wide spectrum of activities stressing on education and livelihood promotion.  These can be divided in two categories, namely social and economic development activities, each of which have the following dimensions.


Social Development Education, Awareness Generation, Health, Counseling,            Group Formation, Games and Sports and Creativity   Activity, Linkage  and Networking.  
Economic Development Vocational Training ( farm and off farm activitiesTraining in Entrepreneurship Development, Assistance in Marketing  and Resource Mobilization, Formation of SHG’s / Co- operatives,  Preservation  and   Management of Natural Resources.                                        

There are both common and specific programmes.  Common programmes cover wide range activities organized in all the areas and these can be divided into five sub groups, namely education and awareness generation, empowering women and youth, livelihood promotion, health and hygiene and games / sports. 

 B. Samriddhi Bal Vidya Mandir, Roopwas , Baharatpur  Rajasthan:

The Kendra started the residential primary school, Bal Vidya Mandir, in 2002, at Roopwas, exclusively for the children of the prostitutes at the request of mothers who were in the trade, operating from different red light areas across the country. The school now functions as a high school and is recognized under the Rajasthan Education Board. The residential facility was withdrawn due to lack of facilities and resources. Now it functions as a day school. The results at the Board Examination have been good. The pass percentage  in the Class Xth Board Examination at the school is 87% against 62%  of the  Rajasthan Board. One Bedia student has passed in first division. The school has been widely accepted by the community  and now children from the nearby areas belonging to other groups are also studying in the school.

The school has 15 teachers and 300 students including 167 students at Ghatauli feeder school, which was developed considering the difficulties of young children on commuting from the villages.  The teachers have the required education and training  as per requirements of the Rajasthan Education Board. About 40% of the total students are girls. 90 – 02 % of the students belong to deprived sections.  This a path breaking development since the girls born in Bedia, Nut, Kanjar etc communities  were earlier not sent to school .

The school provides computer training besides having a hobby centre and a ‘Bal Manch’ [Students’ Parliament] . Multiple methods of work have been  followed to promote better community participation and contribution for successful planning and implementation.

The school has been supported by Marr Munning Trust, London, which is providing Pounds Sterling 8000 per year. (June 2010 to June 2013) to meet the expenditure  of the school  from Ms Mohini Noon and Ms Manjula Krishnan during the year 2010-11. Fees collected from students cover  about 30% of the total cost of running the school.

Despite these limitations, the school functions as an instrument of change in the mindset of the people towards the traditional practice of caste based trafficking/prostitution/crime. This is evident from the fact that on receiving education from the school, the children from the target  families are either continuing with their higher education or engaged in jobs following acquisition of some technical skills. Girl students from these families on completion of their education, are also getting married and in the process, disassociating themselves from the traditional practice. Further , there are several instances of girls resisting their entry into the traditional practice. It would not be a mistake to say that both the schools have started yielding results as an instrument of change in the traditional practice of caste based trafficking/prostitution/crime.

Considering the achievements of the school , Plan India provided Rs 54  lakhs as an onetime grant in 2010-2011 for building  construction. The foundation stone of the school was laid on 6.11.2011 by Mr. Sikri, Secretary, Ministry of Women /Children, Government of India. Opening of the school was done on 14 January 2012 by Mr. Rajeshwar Singh, Divisional Commissioner of Bharatpur. Lady Mohini Noon, London has recently mobilized support for the construction of the school building to meet its accommodation requirements.

With an increase in the number of students and initiation of computer education and library facilities there will be a requirement for 18 teaching staff and 6 non-teaching staff.

 C. Center for Entrepreneurship Development - Udyamita Vikas Kendra.

The Center organizes skill oriented vocational training programmes at two levels i.e. at the level of the center itself and inter organizational levels in different trades like stitching and hand embroidery, advanced courses in fashion designing , beauty culture including mehandi application, typing ,  soft toys and flowers, painting and machine embroidery. Duration of each course varied from 3 to 6 months

The trainees are primarily girls and women (90%) who belonged to the poor and marginalized  sections residing in rural and urban areas in and around Ghaziabad. About 28 trainees have developed their own centers.  

75% trainees are self employed and earning between Rs. 2500 to 6000 per month. Of the total trained women (about 20000) since  1983 to 2012,  a total  of 15,926 women are reported to be working  and they are together earning Rs. 2,78,43,300.

  It is important to indicate that  Continental Carbon India Limited , Ghaziabad and  SAMRIDDHI, Roopwas, Bharatpur requested the Center to organize training programmes for their trainees in different trades .

The Center is planning to organize outreach programmes through its 15 effective affiliated centers located at different rural and urban areas of Ghaziabad for making the livelihood training programme available at their door step.      

D.   Empowering Girls and Women of Socially Excluded Groups to acquire  equity and secure rights to basic services and livelihood:

The Women and Child Development programme is being run at the Kendra premises, which includes a Center for Entrepreneurship Development (Uddamita Vikas Kendra) and a Family Counseling Center

1.  Since inception trained about 20000 girls/women, 15926 are working mainly in the form of self employment.  Earning ranges from Rs. 2500.00 -6000 per month.  They are together earning Rs. 2,78,43,300. 2. Training is imparted in 11 trades – tailoring,  dress designing, embroidery, soft toys, flower making, beautician, typing, computer, mobile repairing, painting and Handicraft. 3.   No. of persons trained for year 2010-11 about 550-600 including 10% male.     

The Center has been in operation since 1983 with  support received from the Marr Munning Trust. It aims at developing entrepreneurship among girls, women and youth by imparting to them livelihood and leadership skills. This is done through the organization of vocational training in different trades and exposure activities. In addition, it covers training in the management of the vocation in terms of marketing and bank finance 


The project has been sponsored by PACS, Poorest Area Civil Society. The duration of the project is for 48 months the project started from 15th September 2011.

This is a network project with two CSO partners – Gram Bharati and Vivekanand Yuva Vikas Sansthan covering 80 villages from Maharajganj district and 40 villages from Kushinanagar district. The villages are from 4 blocks.

The area covers 120 villages from two districts- Maharajganj ( 80 villages) and Kushinagar (40 villages). The villages are from four blocks viz. Nautanwa, Brijmanganj, Pharenda and Partawal of Maharajganj district and to blocks Hata and Sukroli are from Kushinagar district. Altogether, it has covered 85 Gram Panchayats.

Gram Niyojan Kendra is directly implementing the programmes at 80 villages of Maharajganj and the two CSO partners are working at Kushinagar in the rest of the 40 villages. The purpose and outcome of the project is to improve the uptake of entitlement of  15000 families belonging to socially excluded/scheduled groups in the 120 villages, thereby enabling them to address the problems of discrimination. Specifically, it aims at improving their entitlements relating to basic services, promoting participation in governance, increasing sensitivity of the service providers towards the needs and problems of the target groups, their rights and entitlements, strengthening civil society in a manner and they should become able to initiate action to achieve the bare objectives.

Two thematic areas are proposed in the projects- Livelihood Rights and Basic Services and Health Education and Nutrition.

E. Empowering Rural Women ( ERW) Programme: 

It has neeen initiated on 01.02.2012 with the support of  the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. Its goal is empowering  rural women belonging to excluded communities in such a way that they would be  able to secure their rights and entitlements related to basic services . The specific objectives of the programme are: to strengthen small CSOs through capacity building and partnering in organizing women empowerment ; empowering rural women  to  claim their rights related to the basic services; developing leadership by outreaching 9,000 women,  organizing CBOs of women and strengthening them to take the initiative towards accessibility of their rights; making Gram Sabhas functional and ensuring active participation of women in the meetings.

The programme is being organized in partnership with six local partners (CSOs) from two districts - Nalanda (four partners) and Patna (two partners) working at grass root level. The programme covers 57 vilalges (18 Gram Panchayats spread over six blocks-Hilsa, Parwalpur, Silao, & Rajgir from Nalanda and Bakhtiyarpur & Danapur from Patna districts. The target groups are excluded communities- Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward and Muslims  having little or no resources at their disposal.

F. Legal Aid and Family Counseling Service Center:

The Family Counseling Centre, named as Nav Deepti  was established in 1989  with the support of the Central Social Welfare Board to meet the growing needs for a center to deal with the problems of stress and strain on family life arising out of the modern complexities of life styles in  both rural and urban areas. It was one of 400 odd centers set up by the Central Social Welfare Board all over India. Presently the Centre is run by the UP State Social Welfare Board, Lucknow. The Center through awareness generation camps, personal visits and mohalla meetings, in the urban slums and rural areas of Ghaziabad, makes people realize that family problems are a normal phenomena and if they arise, there is no harm in seeking help for a solution. The legal aid and guidance support  are provided by  professional lawyer and counselor to   the clients, at free of cost, to deal with their problems in terms of  maintenance support , in case of separation, ownership of property etc.     

The Center is providing counseling legal and social mobilizatioin services and social mobilization services to the computer training center organized by NIIT.

G. Environmental Sanitation – Waste Disposal:

The programme for better environment was taken up by the Kendra first at Ghaziabad Rural areas ( 6 villages) to promote rural technologies (popularizing smokeless chulhas, soakpit, Grameen Sheetak  etc.)  in 1984-85 for preservation and conservation energy and environment sanitation.

It was taken up for protection and promotion of environment in a much bigger ways in 1988 with the initiation of SUKHA NIYANTRAN SANYUKTA KARYAKRAM (United Action against Drought ).  It was organized from 1989 -90 and continued upto 1995 in the form of  education and training programme  for the workers of local organizations and groups and thereby, encouraging them to organize action for protection and promotion forest.

Third phase started from 1995 to promote action combined with education in selected areas of Bengal , Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand for protection and promotion of environment.

Fourth phase of environmental action started with Management and Disposal of Waste in one village which is now extended to two more villages. As a part of this programme, families have been trained to segregate wastes and put them in two baskets.  Green baskets with disposal waste are used by the families for the purpose of manure.  Blue baskets of non disposable waste are handed over to the rag pickers.

H. Human Resource Development programme

1.  Started from 1977.2. The Kendra has so far organized eight long term courses of 6-15 months duration and over 200 short term courses on different following themes together covering over 1000 workers of voluntary organizations working in Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.  
1. Emerging social realities, issues and concerns (Aged and Handicapped person, Women and marginalized, issues in empowerment, Disaster management, Human rights, rights and entitlements for the marginalized and disadvantaged section of the society specifically the women  
2. Legislations governing the organization 
3. Social survey and research,  
4. Project planning / project formulation and management  
5. Monitoring and evaluation  
6. Documentation  
7. Communication and development  
8. Resource mobilization and networking

Organizing training programmes for the staff members of voluntary organizations have remained an integral part of the Kendra’s activities since its formation (1977). The goal of the programme is to impart knowledge and skill to improve the performance of the staff members and thereby, development of the organizations.  Two types of programmes – Long term  programme on Rural Development Management and short term training courses on different themes related to planning and organization of programme have been organized. MISEROR, Germany was a big support in developing and organizing the programme for over two decades.

The course curriculum for long term courses, which have been organized through Distance Education mode, are given below. Teaching learning materials both in Hind and English are available in the Kendra. 


                                              Foundation Papers- 1st  Semester 
  Unit-1   Unit-2
1  Man and Society 5  Research, Project formulation,     Management, monitoring and evaluation
2 Emerging Development Concerns 6 Mutually supportive groups and People’s     participation
3  Government Policies  and  Programmes 7 Communications and Development.
4  Voluntary Organizations and   Organizational Development 8 Networking and Resource mobilization. 
                                            Programme Papers-2nd  Semester
1  Education and Awareness Generation 5  Problems and programmes for      Differently Abled Persons,  
2 Poverty alliviation and rural livelihood 6 Disaster preparedness and management
3 Population and Health-Community Health, Reproductive Health, Mental Health, STD-AIDS-Care, treatment and management.  7 Social integration, Social and communal    conflict and violence
4  Gender Issue, Women Empowerment and Child Development. 8 Ecology and Environment

I.   CSR Activities-Partnership with industries:

The Kendra is organizing social development programmes in three areas of Ghaziabad in partnership with three corporate bodies, viz. Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private  Ltd., Micromatic Grinding Private Limited, Ghaziabad and Continental Carbon India Limited, Ghaziabad  under the Corporate Social Responsibility Program (CSR). The highlights of the activities organized with different corporate bodies are as follows:

          a)      Partnership with Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private Ltd.

Social Development Programme  in partnership with  Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Ltd. is being implemented in the villages of Dehra,  Hasanpur, Nangla,  Piplehda and Khichra of Dhaulana block, District Ghaziabad from 1999-2000.   The activities organized are  related to  education, health, water and environmental sanitation, vocational training and livelihood promotion and formation of SHGs for women.  

 b)        Partnership with Micromatic Grinding Technologies Ltd. :

The programme in partnership with Micromatic Grinding Technology Ltd. is being implemented in village Reispur, Ghaziabad . The activities organized are environmental sanitation - solid waste management; 45 days, including 30 days of practical training of  Health Attendants (all the 90 trained Health attendants are  engaged);   organizing RCH training among adolescents and women and skill training on different trades, organizing self help groups and promoting micro credit.

 c)   Continental Carbon India Limited:

The programme on ‘Integrated Comprehensive Development Programme at   Chipiyana and Dundaheda villages’, Ghaziabad has been  initiated from  January 2012 with the objective of integrated comprehensive development  centering round education , awareness generation , health and nutrition,  employment generation organization,   formation and environmental sanitation.

J. Research Study:                 

Conducting research on ‘Prostitutes and Prostitution and Trafficking’ and other issues of development has remained an integral part of Kendra’s activities. So for, the Kendra has conducted 22 studies on behalf of   the Government of India and other agencies. Recently conducted studies are ‘Girls and women in Prostitution in India’ covering 10000 respondents from 32 States and Union Territories of India; ‘Sex Tourism in India’    covering 68 tourists sites in 25 states and ‘Trafficking and Migration in the Border districts on the Indian sides of Bangla Desh and Nepal. The reports have been well appreciated by the Government.  The detailed particulars of the studies  conducted by the Kendra are given below.


S.N. Theme Sponsoring Agency Year 
1 Survey of Socio-economic problem                       Synodical Board of     1981 in 24 villages of Balangir district 1981 
2 Socio-economic status of Kolta women in Jaunsar Bawar area Ministry of Education& Social Welfare Govt. of India 1981 
3 Socio-economic position of women                        Gram Niyojan Kendra Ghaziabad 1983
4 An evaluative study of TDTI Rajpur OXFAM , Nagpur  1984
5 Problems of the Aged Gram Niyojan Kendra Ghaziabad 1984 
6. Flesh Trade /Trafficking of Women in U.P.                        Ministry of Social Welfare Govt. of Indi      1985
7. Study of public Conveyance  system especially for women in Ghaziabad       T.D.H., New Delhi 1986 
8 Assessment of IRD programme in one block of the Meerut district. State Govt. of U.P. 1986 
9 Documentation of Rural Development programmes and schemes of the Government Gandhi Peace Centre, Hyderabad  1987 
10 Study on Drought in Rajasthan EZE (Germany) 1988
11 Bhagalpur communal riots: Report GPF/GNK       1989
12 Study on prostitutes and their children in Delhi C.S.W.B. 1990
13 Girl Child Prostitution in Rajasthan Prostitution National Commission of Women 1997
14 Child prostitution in India National Commission of Women 1997
15 Status of India’s Children        Gram Niyojan Kendra 1999
16 Socio-economic survey  of 17 villages in Naugaon and Nautanwa Plan International India, New Delhi 1999 
17 Environmental NGOs in India Gram Niyojan Kendra, Ghaziabad 1999
18 National Directory of Organizations Working on Rescue , Rehabilitation, and Prevention of Prostitution  National commission of women 1999-2000
19 Girls and Women in Prostitution in India Ministry of Women and Child Development Government of India 2002-04
20 Children of the Prostitutes in Delhi Ministry of Social Justice an Empowerment 2006
21 Sex tourism in India Ministry of Women and Child Development Government of India 2007-09
22 Distressed Migration and trafficking in Border Districts of India  Across Bangladesh and Nepal Ministry of Women and Child Development Government of India 2010-11